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Editor’s Note: Encyclo has not been regularly updated since August 2014, so information posted here is likely to be out of date and may be no longer accurate. It’s best used as a snapshot of the media landscape at that point in time.

is a foundation-owned national British newspaper known for its global reach and liberal editorial stance.

The Guardian was as the Manchester Guardian (it was moved to London in 1964). In 1936, ownership of the paper was passed on to the , which has pledged to maintain the paper’s independence and liberal editorial tradition and to reinvest whatever profit it makes.

The Guardian is a national newspaper, and two-thirds of its online readers are It is believed to have the  and, as of 2013, the in the world. As of late 2012, it had a newsroom of approximately .

The Guardian , far from the largest in Britain. Its web readership is much greater, however, with more than  in 2014, including, as of 2013, at least  By the end of that year its U.S. traffic , though as of 2014, it had the of any newspaper in that country. The paper’s total monthly British readership was in mid-2012, with more than half of that total coming online.

The Guardian launched an of its website in 2007 (which was ), and it has articulated an aim to become the “.” In March 2011, The Guardian for an expanded digital operation in the U.S., as the head of the effort and later , who announced in 2013 he would to create his own news organization. It announced it would open a in 2014, and began on various projects. It also  a digital Australian edition in 2013. In print, however, the paper announced it would as of October 2011 and .

The Guardian is published under the Scott Trust by Guardian News and Media, which also publishes the London daily newspaper . It also  and half of the business publisher . In 2014, it of the classifed network Trader Media Group for £619 million.

Guardian News and Media has lost money each of the past six years, including , , , and . Its parent company, Guardian Media Group, reported a 2013 profit of . The paper’s losses are .

Based in part on those financial difficulties, the Guardian’s executives in June 2011 a “digital first” strategy aimed at doubling the company’s digital revenues within five years. In 2012, was generated from print, and as of 2013, it was generating from digital. In the strategy’s first year, the company , prompting plans of further cuts and restructuring. In early 2014, however, its digital revenue to £70 million.

In 2010, The Guardian, along with newspapers like The New York Times and Der Spiegel, produced reporting on the war in Afghanistan as a result of being released from WikiLeaks. The Guardian collaborated with Wikileaks again in November 2010 for the coordinated release and reporting of . (It also to The New York Times, after of the organization’s founder, .) In early 2011, The Guardian a chronicling its interactions with Assange and WikiLeaks.

The Guardian was one of the leading news organizations to publish stories based on U.S. National Security Agency documents leaked in 2013 by Edward Snowden, for its coverage. The paper acquired the documents through its then-blogger and journalist Glenn Greenwald. The British government of the documents, , and before a Parliament committee. In 2014, on the one-year anniversary of Snowden’s leak, The Guardian .


The Guardian’s website, , was as the Guardian Unlimited, and the paper’s executives have a desire to move away from the paper’s print product and toward digital media. The paper to web-first publishing in 2006.

The Guardian formerly offered a of its website, but its executives have , a stance that has earned both and . In 2010, it launched a called Guardian Extra. The program, which offers live events, discounts, and other perks, initially cost members £25 a year; currently, however, the program is offering . Its executives have hinted since then at . The paper in 2012 to head up its business strategies online.

The Guardian was the first British newspaper to through an API in 2009. The paper has also been , asking readers to help provide information about G20 protests, , and .

Its editor, Alan Rusbridger, has been an advocate of what he calls the “” of journalism or “” — an approach to news production that relies on a collaborative relationship between journalists and the public. In 2010, The Guardian put that idea to use when it gave a group of science bloggers direct access to its CMS and implemented a revenue-sharing arrangement with them. The next year, it experimented with to the public and launched an open community news platform called n0tice with ads and revenue sharing, later releasing an open API for it. It also to create a page in which it highlights noteworthy journalistic projects.

In 2013, it created a that allowed users to send content directly to the paper’s content management system. It also launched a for 2012 U.S. election coverage in partnership with New York University, and began for British arts organizations and moving into that year as well.

In 2012, the Guardian , opening its newsroom to the public and encouraging readers to become involved in its news process. As part of that weekend, it articulated its .

In late 2009, The Guardian launched a that drew 100,000 downloads in the first two months. Its next iPhone app, launched in January 2011, had been downloaded by June 2011. In 2010, it a free iPad app, , which features digital images from the paper. (Rusbridger has also to “produce significant revenue” through paid content on the iPad.) The paper also for Amazon’s Kindle in July 2011, and in late 2012 launched a responsive mobile website. The Guardian’s mobile website of its overall digital traffic.

As of 2012, the paper draws about to its website per month. The paper in September 2011, drawing in its first six months and from search to social. It in December 2012, in part because of that exposed fewer people to its content there. In 2014, the paper began experimenting with an based in part on social media metrics.

In 2006, The Guardian began a with Guardian and Observer columnists called (the name derives from of , a longtime Guardian editor). The paper of hyperlocal beat blogs in early 2010, a year later. It has also experimented with offering a with stories aggregated from its websites.

The Guardian in 2014 with an in-house content unit called Guardian Labs. The unit will involve journalists as well as advertising staffers.

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Primary author: Mark Coddington. Main text last updated: August 28, 2014.
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The Arizona Guardian was a subscription-only news site that covered Arizona state politics. It stopped publishing in June 2012. The site was founded in January 2009 by former employees of the East Valley Tribune, and its initial funding was provided by local political consultant Bob Grossfeld, the site’s publisher. The Guardian had three editorial employees. The Guardian was available only…

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